South Carolina Soybeans

From adverse weather to pest and disease infestation, soybean farmers face new challenges each season. To address these challenges, the farmer-led South Carolina soy checkoff invests in research to help soybean farmers obtain better quality, improve yields, control pests and diseases, and expand market options.

Jonathan Croft, Clemson
Asian Soybean Rust Monitoring System 2017
Project Status: New

The primary objective of the Asian Soybean Rust Monitoring project is to implement a monitoring system for Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) in the Southwestern part of South Carolina. The system allows for identification of soybean rust within the state ensuring timely notification of soybean growers in an effort to reduce crop yield losses or input cost if rust is not detected.

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In Season Fertilizer for Additional Soybean Yield and Quality Increase
Project Status: New

“During the 2016 cropping season, 40 replicated small plots were established in a complete randomized block design on a cooperating grower’s farm in Orangeburg County. Ten different treatments were applied within the test. The Orangeburg County farm plots received the in-season fertilizer applications at the targeted timing of early bloom and then received ¾ of an inch of rainfall within 12 hours. Growing conditions at this location were pretty close to average for most of the season. There was a period of about two weeks that no rainfall occurred during July and the plants did become stressed during that time. The plots that received fertilizer matured at the same rate as the plots that did not receive any fertilizer at early bloom, so there was no delay in maturity due to the applications of fertilizer. Harvest was conducted on November 3, 2016 using a small plot combine from the Edisto REC. Along with yield, soybean samples were also taken and sent to the SC Department of Agriculture for crude protein and crude fat content analysis.

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Dr. Ben Fallen, Clemson
Evaluation of SC Soybean Breeding Lines in 2016
Project Status: Continuation

“The primary objectives of the Soybean Breeding Program at Clemson University are to release high yielding soybean varieties that are well adapted to the various environmental conditions and biotic stresses that occur throughout the state of South Carolina. The key areas of focus are reniform nematode resistance, drought tolerance, rust resistance, as well as resistance to other races of nematodes, new herbicide resistant traits as they become available and disease resistance.

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Development of biomarkers predictive of reniform nematode resistance in soybean
Project Status: New

“The goal of this project was to provide soybean breeders a faster and more efficient means to determine and predict resistance to reniform nematode through the development of a molecular screening system. Understanding the genes that are involved in a resistant plant’s defense against reniform nematode and developing discrete genetic points (DNA biomarkers) that accompany this resistance can accelerate the detection of resistant genes in observed lines and implement the introgression or resistance into advance genetic lines.

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Increasing Soybean Yields in South Carolina
Project Status: New

The objectives for this project were to evaluate plant hormones/micronutrients vital to reproduction in soybean to determine their impact on pod retention and yield and determine what application date is best for increasing pod retention and yield, evaluate 3 soybean lines for traits that could be a deer deterrent, and determine if planting a RR1 forage soybean around the perimeter of a field decreases deer damage to the field core.

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Hollens Free, Clemson
Variable Rate Seeding Prescription Development for Soybeans
Project Status: Continuation

“The Clemson Directed Prescriptions system for prescribing variable seeding rates for soybeans showed a benefit of about 2 bushels per acre or about $10 per acre profit when compared to the best performing blanket seeding rate for the field.  The optimum seeding rate to maximize profit for this field was 90,000 seed per acre. In many cases growers are planting higher populations than this, which may be appropriate for their growing conditions; it must be kept in context that the results here were for an irrigated test. The results from this test support application of higher rates in poorer soils and lower rates in better soils. This method of prescribing seeding rates can also benefit growers that may not have variable seeding rate technology simply by helping them determine what the best seeding rate would be for their fields.  The yields and returns calculated for the variable rate prescription are projection based data from the trial; to formally test the prescription it is necessary to conduct the trial for a second year of testing and implement the 2016 variable rate prescription as one of the treatments for the 2017 trial. “

The SC Soybean Board is continuing to fund this project during FY2018.

Dr. Jeremy Greene, Clemson
Evaluation of Insecticides and Repellents for Suppression of Feeding Injury by Deer in South Carolina Soybeans
Project Status: New

“Results of this study indicated that at-plant applications of aldicarb reduced feeding injury from deer. Growers battling deer feeding damage in areas with early season insect or nematode issues will likely benefit from incorporating at-plant treatments of aldicarb into their pest management program. Additionally, foliar applications of soap-based repellents, such as Hinder and concentrated insecticidal soap appear to further suppress deer feeding injury. Future studies will evaluate the timing and frequency of repellent applications in soybeans required to provide protection from feeding injury from deer.”

The SC soybean Board is continuing to fund this project during FY2018.

David Gunter, Clemson
Evaluation of Different Row Widths and Plant Populations on Soybean Yield in SC
Project Status: New

“The objective of this project is to maximize soybean yields using different row widths and find what seed population obtains the highest yields.

Results of the project indicated that the 30 inch rows yielded better than the traditional 38 inch rows.  The same can be said looking at all four seeding rates (112,000, 127,000, 142,000, 157,000) as well. Looking at the seeding rates, the plant population that topped out the trial was at 142,000 seed/acre. These results are from an irrigated trial on a good Dunbar soil type.”

The SC soybean Board is continuing to fund this project during FY2018.

Dr. Michael Marshall, Clemson
Efficacy of Selected Postemergence Herbicides in Soybean Based on Weed Size
Project Status: New

“Data from the first POST application indicated that all weed species (Palmer amaranth, pitted morningglory, and sicklepod) were controlled regardless of herbicide. At the 4” timing (POST1), Flexstar, Storm, Liberty, and Glyphosate provided 95% or better control of pitted morningglory, sicklepod, and Palmer amaranth (excluding glyphosate treatment due to resistance.) In the POST2 (8”) and POST3 (12”) application timings, we observed a significant decrease in control of pitted morningglory and Palmer amaranth with Flexstar and Storm (regrowth on some of the 8” [POST2] weeds with significant increase of regrowth in the 12” [POST3] treated weeds). Glyphosate activity on pitted morningglory and sicklepod decreased after the weeds exceeded 8” (POST2) in height. Suppression of pitted morningglory and sicklepod were observed at the 12” (POST3) timing. Liberty (32 oz/A and above) provided better control of the 8” (POST2) sized Palmer amaranth, pitted morningglory, and sicklepod compared to Flexstar and Storm. At 12” (POST3), Liberty efficacy was only maintained by increasing the rate to 43 oz/A.”

Dr. Sruthi Narayanan, Clemson
Identification of Soybean lines with traits that contribute to early-season drought tolerance
Project Status: New

“Germination percent and primary root length were higher at 80% pot-water-holding-capacity (PWHC) than at 100% PWHC, which implies that farmers do not need to irrigate to 100% field capacity in order to get the best results out of irrigation in terms of germination percentage. When below 60% PWHC, germination percentage is significantly decreased (88% of genotypes had <30% germination at 40% PWHC), which implies that irrigation would be required to ensure proper germination if the field capacity is <60%. Results indicated that 20% PWHC resulted in no germination. Soybean genotypes 86, 120 and 207 had 100% germination at 100%, 80% and 60% PWHC, indicating that these genotypes are good materials to develop varieties with drought tolerance at planting. Studies showed that seed size had no influence on germination percentage, indicating that farmers can exploit lower prices if asking for smaller seed sizes.”

Dr. Wesley M. Porter & Dr. George Vellidis, UGA
Continuing Developmental Work on the Creation of an Easy-to-Use, Low-Cost Regional Irrigation Scheduling Tool for Soybeans
Project Status: Continuation

“Soybeans are becoming an increasingly important crop in the Southeast including South Carolina where potential for yields and profitability is high.  Because of our sandy soils and periodic droughts, to consistently achieve high yields soybean growers must use irrigation.  Sound irrigation scheduling strategies and appropriate irrigation scheduling tools are needed to address the timing and amount of irrigation needed during the growing season.  Irrigation scheduling has not been widely adopted by Southeastern soybean producers because traditionally soybeans have not been irrigated and thus reliable and easy-to-use scheduling tools are not available.  This project will provide South Carolina soybean growers with a cheap, reliable, and easy-to-use irrigation scheduling tool.  The benefit to soybean growers who use this tool will be consistently higher yields, higher water use efficiency, and conservation of water resources.”

The SC soybean Board is continuing to fund this project during FY2018.

Becky Kinder, SSRP
Southern Soybean Research Project
Project Status: Continuation

The Southern Soybean Research Program (SSRP) uses checkoff dollars to coordinate and fund production research projects that benefit the Southern soybean-producing region. The six states making up the SSRP include Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas.